OCTOBER 2 — OCTOBER 6
AT HOME ABROAD
FaScist March Produces Grave Situation
The Fiiscist plan to stage a march in uniform right through the heart of East London—a well-known stronghold of Labour n d Jewry—produced a tense situation in London. Vain appeals were made beforehand to Sir John Simon, the Home Secretary, to ban the march in view gf the intense feeling in East London. Enormous crowds gathered and feeling ran high. Clashes with the police and other incidents were numerous. Eighty-four arrests were made and numerous cases of injury were reported. Finally, in view of the likelihood of serious bloodshed, the police banned the march and projected meetings and the Fascists marched to the West End, where fulrther minor clashes occurred.
Marchers are setting out on a march from Jarrow to London in order to draw the attention of Parliament to the plight of one of the most distressed areas in England. A petition for the resuscitation of Jarrow's industry accompanies the procession. There are 84 per cent. unemployed in Jarrow. It is expected that the marchers will reach London by the end of the month. Miss Ellen Wilkinson, the Labour M.P. for Jarrow, is leading the march and will present the petition to Parliament.
Among the outstanding features of the Conservative Conference at Margate was the absence of Mr. Baldwin, who was replaced by Mr. Neville Chamberlain. Both Mr. Chamberlain and Sir Samuel Hoare made impressive speeches and emphasised the necessity for re-armament and national security before collective defence. A thinly veiled appeal was made by Sir Samuel Hoare to the Labour movement to co-operate in re-armament and
national security. The conference overwhelmingly endorsed a resolution moved by Mr. Duncan Sandys, M.P., proclaiming the intangibility of British League man
dates, despite Sir Samuel Hoare. The conference also demanded a tariff, against the advice of Mr. Walter Elliot, Minister of Agriculture, on all agricultural produce. A resolution was passed, for the sixteenth time, demanding reform of the House of Lords.
Johannesburg Air Race
The Johannesburg air race was won by C. W. A. Scott and Giles Guthrie, who landed at Johannesburg some fifty-three hours after leaving London. They were flying a Vega Gull and will win £4,000 as their share of the prize-money. Nine aeroplanes competed in the race, One, the Airspeed Envoy, crashed at Abercorn, Northern Rhodesia, and the pilot, Captain M. IL Findlay, and the operator, A. H. Morgan, were killed. All the other planes competing were out of action.
Bradford Lord Mayoralty
Three members of the Bradford City Council, including the Lord Mayor-elect, are to be expelled from the Bradford Labour Party owing to indiscipline. The three members in question — Alderman Carter, Captain Brown and Councillor Helliwell — failed to support the party's nominee for the Lord Mayoralty. The two latter proposed and seconded Alderman Carter, who accepted, and was supported by the Conservative and Liberal councillors.
R.A.F. Plane Breaks Altitude Record
Squadron-Leader F. R. D. Swain has successfully broken a new altitude record, it is officially announced by the R.A.F. He attained a height of 49,967 feet at Farnborough, or nearly nine and a half miles. The previous record-holder was a Frenchman, M. Detre, who attained a height of 48,698 feet on August 14 at Villacoublay.
The annual conference of the Labour Party opened at Edinburgh, under the chairmanship of Mrs. J. L. Adamson. A resolution, moved by Mr. Herbert Morrison, M.P., was passed deploring the Fascist attempt to provoke disturbance in the East End of London and calling for action on
the plea of illegal drilling. Non-intervention in Spain was then discussed, and Sir Charles Trevelyan and others pointed to the gross breaches of the pact by Germany and Italy. The policy of non-intervention was, however, ratified by 1,836,000 to 519,000.
The debate on armaments was opened by Dr. Dalton, who pleaded for increased armaments to reinforce collective security. Other speakers included Mr. George Lansbury and Lord Arnold, who opposed the Executive, and Mr. Herbert Morrison.
Unemployment figures rose by 10,000 to 1,624,339 during the month ended September 21. This was the first rise for eight months, the last seven having shown a progressive decrease. The seasonal decline of employment in hotels, seaside catering, and other industries, are mainly responsible for the rise. Trades in which an improvement was shown included woollen and worsted, pottery, iron and steel, engineering, boot and shoe, shipbuilding and motor vehicles.
Church and Disestablishment
Dr. Hensley Henson, Bishop of Durham, speaking to the Lichfield Diocesan Conference, declared that it was his conviction that disestablishment of the Church of England was, much as he regretted it, the only solution to the present crisis. Sir Thomas Inskip, Minister of Defence, said that he thought that the Church should not seek to dissociate itself from the State, but to influence it.
Appeal for Union of Democratic Forces
An appeal has been sent to the Liberal and Labour parties deploring the division of the forces of democracy and urging the vital necessity for co-operation in the face of the forces of reaction and for the defence of freedom, in England as else where. Among the signatories are Sir Norman Angell, Miss Margery Fry, Mr. Eric Gill, Mr. Aldous Huxley, Professor Julian Huxley, Sir Richard Gregory, Miss Storm Jameson, Mr. Augustus John, Mr. Constant Lambert, Madame Lorsignol, Mr. H. W. Nevinson, Mr. J. B. Priestley, and Mr. Aylmer Valiance.
French Devaluation and Repercussions
M. Blum's devaluation measures, together with the accompanying economic and social legislation, was approved by the Chamber of Deputies with a majority of over 100, but the accompanying measures were rejected by the Senate after a heated debate. Finally, a grave crisis was averted by compromise on the part of the Government with the Senate's amendments, and the Bourse was re-opened. The official rate is now in the neighbourhood of 105-106 to Li and will, it is thought, be pegged at approximately that level. Meanwhile Dutch guilders, which have not been devalued officially, have depreciated steadily and have passed from 8.86 to 9.36.
The Italian Government has decided to reduce the value of the lira from 64 to 92 to the pound sterling. In view of Signor Mussolini's pledge at Pesaro never to devalue the lira this measure is referred to as " currency equalisation." This measure is accompanied by a forced loan on land and other property, as well as legislation aimed at stabilising rents and prices at their present levels. Sharp decreases in import duties are also provided for.
Mr. Sean Lester, League of Nations Commissioner in Danzig, has been nominated to an important post at League Headquarters in Geneva, and will shortly leave Danzig. To ease the tension in Danzig, the League Council has asked the Polish Government to put an end to the obstruction and terrorism met with at the hands of the Danzig Government and their sup porters. This firm attitude is thought to have been occasioned by Mr. Lester's exceedingly grave report, revealing the virtual Nazi dictatqrship and violent terrorism exercised against non-Nazis, particularly Socialists and Catholics.
Germany and Devaluation
Dr. Schacht, President of the Reichsbank, officially declared on behalf of the German Government that it was not the latter's intention to devalue the mark. He declared, however, that the German Government would be willing to enter into negotiations with regard to a stabilisation agreement. He hinted at the possibility of political conditions in connection with such an agreement and reiterated Germany's claim for colonies and raw materials.
Among the outstanding events at the League Assembly at Geneva have been French devaluation with its attendant currency agreement and an underlying polemic between the Portuguese and Spanish delegates, as well as an outspoken speech by the New Zealand delegate, Mr. Jordan, on sanctions. The latter pleaded for the retention of full economic sanctions against aggressors and the working-out of a plan for military sanctions in accordance with geographical position. Mr. Morrison, speaking on behalf of the British Government, welcomed French devaluation as a stimulus to international trade, as well as the remarkable reduction in French import duties. He declared, however, that strong pressure would be brought to bear in Great Britain for counter-devaluation and additional duties to offset goods from France and other countries with devaluated currencies. He also pleaded for an enquiry into the raw materials position under League auspices.
Senhor Monteiro, the Portuguese Foreign Minister, defended the Portuguese position as regards non-intervention, and made a veiled attack upon the Spanish Govern ment. Senor Ossorio y Gallardo, the famous Catholic Conservative lawyer, replied on behalf of the Spanish Government and defended the latter's position.
Spanish Civil War
After very considerable insurgent successes, the situation appears once again to have settled down, and little progress is to be witnessed of late anywhere. Minor insurgent Successes are claimed in the region of Toledo, but Madrid, although prepared for attack, is not as yet directly menaced. Fierce fighting is reported near Siguenza, an important strategic point to the north-east of Madrid. The insurgent advance near Bilbao appears to have been checked. It is thought that a wholesale attack will shortly be launched by the insurgent forces near Malaga as elaborate preparations for the purpose are being made. Air raids upon Madrid have been reported, but little damage was done. The Madrid Bar reports fearful atrocities on a large scale committed by the insurgents, particularly in Andalusia and near Sara gossa. This is countered by insurgent reports of massacres of hostages at Bilbao and elsewhere by Government supporters.
The recent Sino-Japanese incidents and the interrupted negotiations have been followed by the arrival of General ChiangKai-Shek, the Chinese Premier, and Mr. Kuwashima, the special envoy of the Japanese Foreign Office, in Nanking. It is thought that the Chinese Premier will resume negotiations personally, but a stiffening of the Japanese demands is feared, in view of China's unexpected counter-demands, aiming at the suppression of organised Japanese encroachment upon China.
Austrian Heimwehr Disputes
The Executive of the Austrian Heimwehr decided to dismiss Major Fey from his post as newly-elected leader of the Vienna Heimwehr section. Supported by a part of the latter and also by the Tyrolese Heimwehr section, he refused to accept his dismissal, and indicted the leadership of Prince Starhernberg, leader of the Austrian Heimwehr. This dissension threatens to produce a serious split in Heimwehr ranks throughout Austria.
Hungarian Premier Dead
General Gaembaes, Prime Minister of Hungary, died in Germany, at the age of 49, after a long illness. He had been Prime Minister of Hungary since 1932 and was, although not a dictator, a great admirer of the Fascist dictators and their aims and methods.