OSSERVATORE'S ANALYSIS OF PAPAL PEACE POINT An international economic order must have a moral foundation. That is vital, says the Osserratore Romano, in an article recently on the third Papal Peace Point.
In the first paragraph of Point 3, tine article states, we find the essential moral basis for a New Order, " Within the limits of a new order founded an moral principles there is no place for that cold and calculating egwism which tends to hoard economic resources and materials destined for the use of all to such an extent that nations less favoured by nature are not permitted access to them."
The Osservatore then quotes the encyclical Serium Leunitiae to the Bishops of the United States which re-states the fundamental doctrine of Rerun: Norarunt, that " materials and goods created by God for all men should be available for alt, according to the principles of justice and charity, Every man as a living being, gifted with reason, has in fact from nature the fundamental right to make usc or the material goods of the earth, while it is left to the will of man, and to the juridical statutes of nations, to regulate in greater detail the exercise of this right. This individual right cannot in any way be suppressed, even by other clear and undisputed rights over material goods. Undoubtedly, the natural order deriving from God demonth also private property and the free reciprocal commerce of goods by interchange and gift, as well as the functioning of the State as a control over all these institutions. All this remains subordinated to the natural scope of material goods, and cannot emancipate itself from the first and fundamental right, which concedes their use to all men. But it should rather serve to make possible the actuation of this right in conformity with its scope."
Individual property and its use in common. These arc the two main points of the Papal statement. This is a two-fold principle applicable both to national and international economy.
TO SATISFY ALL
Material goods are not meant to be hoarded, nor to merely enrich the few ; they arc there to satisfy the needs of all, the Osservatore continues. The sense of community that links each of us with our fellow men requires that individual needs should not bc met at the expense of the rightful needs of others, as in the case where capitalism builds on a foundation of poverty. Private property is, therefore, both a right and a duty; it is private but has a social function. It is a personal " facultas," but with obligations to the community.
The Osservatore then points out that by its failure to realise that the economic welfare of the individual nation is subordinate to the welfare of the whole community of States ; by making economic relations between the members of nations difficult if not impossible and by limiting or preventing the enjoyment of goods that God meant for everyone, the State has helped to keep alive the causes of international strife, however legitimate may have been its ideas for the economic defence of its country and guardianship of its national life; in these ways it has contributed to international disorder and to those financial crises which result in the breakdown of co-operation and disturb
that frthtful distribution of work between nations according to the national gifts and traditions of each people.
MATERAL GOODS HAVE .LOST THEIR FUNCTION Material goods have lost their function of satisfying the needs of all irrespective of national frontiers, and have become tools, economic or political, to further the selfish aims of States; they are no longer links between men hut weapons in the struggle between conflicting national interests.
The fundamental cause of the evil of our economic order is calculated selfish' nets by misunderstanding the true nature of legitimate private and national interests and of their rightful defence, this egoism tends to destroy the social function of goods and thereby sets the individual welfare of each nation above the welfare of the whole community of States. The result is that not even national interests have been satisfied.
The defence of national economy has turned into an aggressive and complicated economic warfare, concludes the Osservatore, crises are provoked by absurd export regulations, the raising and fluctuation of custom duties, artificial quotas, monopolies, artificial barriers to the flow of capital, systematic manipulation of finance, dumping, closing of colonial markets; all these things are abuses of the normal instruments of economic control, which are useful and rational when used to keep the balance between individual and common good but which are absurd when they create even greater instability. Although the earth, says Rerum Novartort, is divided among individuals, its products are not equally available to all. Calculated self interest has prevented this and has gravely upset the natural relations between peoples.