POINTS IN SELECTING A CAMERA Types For Different Work
By Henry C. Mahoney.
There is a wonderful selection of cameras on the market to-day ranging in price from a few shillings to £50 and over. Whilst the cheaper models may suffice for those wishing merely to record holiday scenes, I would not recommend them to the amateur who aims at real photography and pictorial work. I do not mean you should buy expensive apparatus but that careful consideration should be given to certain points according to the class of work you decide to do.
The lens is perhaps the most important feature. Years ago those working at large aperture were not only very expensive, but often-times badly corrected. Science has overcome those optical errors so successfully that to-day a lens giving perfect definition to the edge of the picture at open aperture can be obtained at a reasonable price.
Before buying a camera seek the advice of a friend who knows the points to look for; if it is not convenient to obtain that advice write to me and I will forward illustrations with full information relative to various models calculated to suit your requirements and which you can purchase through your local dealer. Space does not permit of my giving full details of various makes, but the following brief details of various types should prove of value to those about to commence photography and to those wishing to specialise.
A reliable Field Camera is a more or less expensive outfit and recommended only if serious work is anticipated. It is fitted with a ground glass screen at the back to enable the operator to accurately focus. The back is then lifted and the dark slide occupies its place, thus ensuring perfect registration. A turntable is fitted to the base which is secured to a tripod, giving freedom of movement combined with rigidity.
Such a camera should incorporate the following : square bellows; rising, sliding and swing front; triple extension (which is of value when photographing small objects also for copying, and the additional advantage of enabling the plate and lens to be brought close together over the base for use with short focus work which is sometimes of extreme value with interior pictures); reversible back to allow pictures to be taken upright or oblong without moving the camera; swing back. This is essential when photographing high buildings at close range and must invariably be used in architectural work, otherwise the uprights converge. , Some of these movements may appear to be superfluous, but experience has proved they all serve a special purpose under varying conditions, and without them certain pictures would be impossible to obtain. The photograph shown on the back page "Cowfold Monastery," is a good example of architectural work under difficult conditions.
A belt of trees prevented the picture being taken from a greater distance, no wider angle lens was available. The result as seen was obtained by elevating the front as far as possible then swinging the front to include the top of the spires followed by swinging the back to make the picture upright (The plate or film must always be parallel with the object being photographed or distortion will result). The lens was then stopped down to f.22 to obtain even sharpness and definition over the whole picture. Note the figure in the foreground is quite sharp, whilst the clock in the background is quite visible.
Detail is essential in a picture of this description; but if you were making a pictorial landscape, only the foreground objects would be sharp. Otherwise the beautiful planes that Nature has given us would be lost, and the picture would be lacking in atmosphere and perspective. But I shall be dealing with this at length under a separate heading.
Magazine Box Cameras
These cameras are usually quarter plate size although smaller ones can be obtained. They are fitted with a magazine holding 12 plates (picture 3+ x 41) and dropped to the bottom of the camera after each exposure has been made. Although good pictures can be obtained, they are rather bulky to carry and being loaded with 12 plates are very heavy in comparison with film cameras.
Reflex and Anchutz Hand Cameras These instruments are designed for high speed work, Press photography, etc. They are fitted with what is known as a " Focal Plane " shutter, a blind working directly in front of the plate with adjustable slits which control the exposure from one second up to 1000th part of a second. They are of course fitted with high class lenses consistent with the special work they are designed to do.
The reflex is fitted with a mirror working in conjunction with the shutter, which enables you to view the picture up to the moment of exposure.
Folding Hand Cameras for Plates and Flat Films
Folding hand cameras are obtainable fitted with several of the movements associated with field cameras and function in a similar way except that they are seldom fitted with a turntable. If used in conjunc
tion with a rigid tripod very satisfacto work can be done. They can also be us with a film pack adapter which enabl you to carry 12 flat films which can loaded and unloaded in daylight. T use of a film pack makes it much lighter carry and is a great convenience wh travelling, since no dark room is requir for changing.
Roll Film Cameras
This type is the most popular for genet use by amateurs by virtue of its portabil and convenient size. There are, of cour numerous models on the market and exc lent results can be obtained if care is tak with the adjustments. Fixed focus mod. have their limitations and it is always z visable to purchase one with either a foci sing lens or a scale marked in feet. you have no screen on which to comp( or accurately focus the picture, care inT be taken to see the subject is upright the view finder; and in the case of subje at short range be certain the feet are : curately measured according to the sea Roll films are obtainable from almost a store or chemist in any part you may travelling and of course can be loaded a unloaded in daylight.
It is advisable to purchase a cam( with a lens opening at f/6.3 or f/4.5 oth wise your efforts are restricted to brii weather. Great advance has been made recent years with " Midget " cameras, an have obtained some amazing results w these pocket models. It is not always c( venient for one to carry a camera, howeN enthusiastic one may be, but the " Midge can be carried in the waistcoat pocket the handbag ready for instant use NOan opportunity presents itself.
They can be obtained at various pri from leading firms. The Ensign Model at 55s., fitted with a f/6.3 lens is a vi efficient instrument. There are, too, Koc with f/5.6 lens at 70s.; Zeiss, Sands Hi ter and many others of which I shall pleased to send fuller details to any reai of the Catholic Herald who is interest The actual size of the negative is 11 x but the lenses give such remarkable deli tion that they can be enlarged without 1 ing any detail whatever.
By Q E D
A correspondent asks for my opin about the first lead to a three no Tru declaration under these circumstances. SI pose that South has secured the contract three no Trumps and during the biddi East has shown a suit, should West that suit first, and if so, what card that suit?
Personally, I am in favour of lead East his suit at once; he certainly expe it and has probably put in his bid in or to indicate to his partner what to lead S secures the no Trump contract. To ( appoint him may have ruinous results the defence. East may only have one c tain card of re-entry and he wants to cl the suit he has called in which there n be only one stop in the hand of South; he must do this straight away or never.
Normally you should lead the hie card of that suit; but if you hold Ace J x, in that case lead the J. Partner if has the King puts it up first round : leads at once through the strength South's hand. This kills the Q, the I stop on which S has relied.
I am quite aware of the argumentsuming W has nothing much in the called by East—what is the use of lead it? S by going No Trumps has she that he has got that suit held; yes, but may only have one stop in it and it emt rasses him most to be forced to part v that stop early in the play of the ha Even if S has two stops, I still advoc the lead of the suit, called for by the East made. Lead your highest: even i is a singleton, lead it!
Are there any exceptions to this ru Yes, if you, as West, have an exception: strong suit. For instance, if you hay suit headed by an Ace K, your first I should be the K of that suit; then aban( it and give East his proper lead. If have five of a suit with three top honot again lead the King and go on leading it you think that S has no guard in that s that you must try to judge by distributi at any rate you will have had a sight Dummy.
I have seen the defence ruined so in: times by not leading East's suit,tha would give this advice with some co dence. You must have very solid reas for departing from it. There is one obvi danger in gambling on any other suit le you may take out a very precious card re-entry in your partner's hand. Now us take a concrete case, and a very cc mon one. East has the Ace of Diamo and in Hearts, K Q J 10 x. South Ace 9 x x. He is hoping that the 9 r be a second guard; but it is not, if I gets in at once and goes on leading He till the Ace in South's hand is pla3 He thus makes four tricks Hearts and his Ace of Diamo and sets the contract. This is the kind thing that happens over and over ag at Bridge and has convinced me that NI must lead at once the suit East has nar in the bidding.