SIR,—In view of your answer to Orbis Terrarum, one is inclined to ask (without disrespect), " Should Cardinals in Curia have a vote?"
If, as you say, for various (and quite understandable reasons) these will alwaye be Italian, one feels—rightly or wrongly—they will continue to vote for an Italian.
Titosses E. C. PURVIS, [Our correspondent does not ahoso enough weight to the difference between Italy and the Vatican—Cardinals of See might be considered ae much or as little nationca-minded as Cardinals of French or German Sees, but the Cardinals in Curia have been trained to be purely Vatican, and the distinction between the mind of the Vatican and the mind of the Italian clergy has not been without illustration of recent years. Probably the strongest objection to a non-Italian Pope is the break witk tradition with all the dangers of such breaks.—Enrros.1
THE AUSTRIAN VETO
SIR,—.I have seen it stated in several newspapers this week, once in your article headed " The Coming Conclave," that only the now abolished veto prevented Cardinal Rampolla from being elected Pope in 1903.
In the Life of Pius X, by F. A. Forbes (Burns Oates and Washbourne), a full account of the 1903 conclave is given and the author states that after the third scrutiny a cardinal bearing the mandate of the Austrian emperor read a declaration excluding Cardinal Rampolla without giving any specific reason.
The cardinals protested against the interference and on the fourth count Cardinal Rampolla's votes had increased still further, but Cardinal Sarto's votes had been increasing steadily from the beginning and continued to do so till they reached the number of fifty, when he was elected.
It would thus appear that the veto had no effect on this election.
J. B. ROWLEY. 23, Oakland Road, Liverpool.
[It is stated in the Catholic Encyclopaedia Supplementary Volume, under Rampolla, that "in the conclave that elected Plu-s X, Rampolla would certainly have received the Tiara, had it not been for the veto power of Austria." —Eorros.1
" SIXPENNIES "
Sre,—Barbara Wall's column on "Mass Observations," sui excellent one, leads me to ask why it is that men like Christopher Hollis, Douglas Jerrold and Douglas Woodruff are not writing "sixpennies "? I believe the Penguin publishers disclaim any Left bias, and say they publish what is offered to them. J. M. N. JESTS TES. Taunton. IRISH CATHOLICS
An English student told W. Henry P. Boyd that the reason the Irish were such " poor Catholics " is because they recite the Rosary at Mass instead of using a missal. The percentage of good Catholics in Ireland will be accurately found when we have been tested as Spain has been. The " Bades" most valuable aids to holiness of life at the proper time and place, give users of them at Mass a tempting opportunity to examine the outfits of those in front of them, but, unfortunately. many of our people would not be able to use a missal. The only active part they take in assisting the priest to offer the Sacrifice of the Mass is to tap their breasts when the bell rings. A goodly number have neither beads nor prayer-books.
In 1918-19 I attended a German Catholic Church in the Toowomba diocese, Queensland. The intense devotion expressed by the whole congregation in the hymns sung during Mass will ever remain in my memory. There, surely, was a congregation taking an active part in the liturgy.
T. M. DONOVAN. Co. Kerry.
BOOKS FOR BOYS
One of your correspondents wrote last week asking for suggestions for books which should be read to complete the education of boys between the age of 15 and 17_
In the first place a very comprehensive list is published by the English Association in their pamphlets Nos. 21 and 33.
I should, however, single out for special mention : R. H. Benson's Come Rack, Come Rope; E. F. Benson's David Skase; David Copperfield or Pickwick Papers; E. Raymond's Tell England; Hugh WaIpoie's Fortitude. To these I should add one of Chestertonas " Fr. Brown " stories and a typical Wodehouse yarn to supply the humour.
VrNerser B. HUDSON. London, S.E.19.
DEAF AND DUMB APPEAL I venture to ask your readers if any of them take copies of the following illustrated weeklies: Graphic, Sphere, Illustrated London News,
When they have read them through would they be willing to post one or more of these illustrated papers to : St. Joseph's Mission to Catholic Deaf and Dumb, 368, Chester Road, Old Trafford, Manchester, regularly, where they will be very gratefully received by the members and can be passed on to other centres later. This mission was begun ten years ago by the late Bishop Henshaw in one of the poorest districts of Manchester.
Assuring your readers of our grateful thanks for their anticipated kindness.
CHARLES J. Fisissimes. Sale, Cheshire. C.T.S. PAMPHLETS
It was not so much the busy termini that I bad in mind as the remoter junction stations, where a prolonged wait is often necessary.
I have noticed Protestant devotional booklets in such places.
Stratton-on-Fosse, near Bath.
WHAT IS A CHRISTIAN.?
SIR,—The letter of C. C. A. Munro, under this heading, in your issue of February 17, reveals an atmosphere of thought which pervades much of the spoken and written word on the claims of Christ's religion. Christianity is thought of chiefly as a body, of doctrine, sometimes as a system of ethics.
Mr Munro asks if there is a " kernel of doctrine," a mere minimum of Christ's teaching, acceptance of which entitles one to the name of Christian; or " is it enough to subscribe to the ethics of the Gospels?"
Christianity is more than that: it is first and foremost a Life, a divine supernatural Life. It is, in a true and real sense, Christ Himself in His threefold office of Priest or Mediator of the Divine Life, of King or Ruler of the Kingdom of Goa of Prophet who delivers to us the revelation of God. The Church which He founded is one with Him: it is the extension through time and space of His life and activity in a Mystical Body which exercises in Him and with Him His threefold office of Priest, Prophet and King. Surely only one who accepts the whole Christ can rightly claim to be a Christian!
A Christian, therefore. is one who is incorporated in Christ the Priest as a member of His Mystical Body, and so lives with the Divine Life of which He is Mediator; one who accepts the revelation of God which Christ the Prophet, through the prophetical office of His Church, delivers to us; one, in fine, who accepts Christ the King who. through His Mystical Body rules and directs us in a " Kingdom eternal and universal, a Kingdom of truth and life, a Kingdom of holiness and grace, a Kingdom of justice, love and peace."
The Pauline conception of the Church as the Mystical Body of Christ has long been obscured. The Vatican Council marked the beginning of a new era of theological thought, in which this doctrine is coming again to be the framework In which the glories of our Christian inheritance will be more effectively set before the eyes of men. It is this conception of the Church which the Pontifical Oriental Institute, with Bishop d'Herbigny at its head, relies on chiefly to bring about the union of the Eastern " Orthodox" Churches into the fold of Christ. May we not hope that the same method of approach to our separated brethren in England will have the same desired result ?
(Rev.) E. R. JAMES. Porthcawl, Glans.