Writing from Buenos Aires on July 9 Mr. Tomlinson says :
Buenos Aires is full of war talk, just as much so as New York or Washington. After dismissing wild rumours the writer goes on to say that there is a " fifth column" in the country and considerable pro-Nazi and Fascist sentiment. Some well known politicians, even members of Congress, are publicly very sympathetic toward Germany. But so far as any one knows the "fifth column 'S is made up principally of Germans and a few Italian Fascists, who not only are actively engaged in subversive work among native Argentines but who spend considerable time trying to keep their own nationals in line, bleeding them of money to support the totalitarian cause at home and abroad.
Argentine citizens have not been idlc in the matter of combating Nazi propaganda. They have organised a counterpropaganda group popularly known as the " sixth column."
This is a notional movement called " Accion Argentina," anti is made up of some of the most important citizens of the nation. including Dr. Marcelo Alvear, former President of the republic and leader of the Radical or Democratic party. the largest political group in the nation, as well as many outstanding business, professional and religious leaders.
Most of them are old-line Argentines of Spanish and Irish ancestry. The moving spirits in the organisation are the sons of these families. So far these youngsters have been much more active than the older people. Impulsively they have engaged in several riotous public demonstrations.
Pro-Ally " Sixth"
While the "sixth column " is intensely pro-Ally, its chief aim is to preserve Argentine independence and integrity against all alien influences.
The powerful, independent and loyal press of Argentina without doubt has been the greatest bulwark against totalitarianism. All leading newspapers in Buenos Aires, without exception, not only are outspokenly anti-Nazi and antiFascist, but just as definitely pro-Ally.
There are two or three small papers in the Argentine capital that are violently anti-Ally. The best known of these is El Pamper°, which is known to be subsidised by Nazi interests. It is said to be edited under the supervision of local German diplomats. It is given free to the newsstands and newsboys.
In Chile Nazi organisation is both open and underground. It has a well defined plan for all eventualities in
Europe, and counts Communism as an ally. Of it Mr. Tomlinson writes:
Among the South American countries in which Nazi Fifth Column organisations are known to exist, Chile is the stronghold. It is one of the few countries in which Nazi leaders themselves have made little effort to conceal their activities. Most of the time in the last three years they even have sponsored a political party and maintained representatives in the national Chamber of Deputies.
But then Chile, next to Brazil, has the largest and oldest German colony of any of the Smith American republics. The Germans settled in southern Chile more than a half century ago. To-day the population of such cities as Valdivia and Osorno is almost wholly German, where
the Spanish language of the country seldom is heard.
After describing Nazi and Fascist successes in recent years, notably the impeachment of the former Minister of Foreign Affairs, the writer goes on:
The latest organisation to enter the field is the Partido Nacional Fascihu which has chosen a species Of swastika for an insignia. The membership in the new party is predominantly military.
This party has announced boldly that it is strictly Fascist and declared that parliamentarianism will not work in Chile. Closely allied to the Fascist and Nazi parties in spirit, if not in form, is the Communist Party. Since the pact between Josef V. Stalin and Reichsfaehrer Adolf Hitler the Communists openly support the Nazi war.
The Communist party is very strong in Chile to-day. Apparently it has plenty of money. The Communists support several newspapers throughout Chile, and
recently have announced plans for the establishment of another daily paper in Santiago.
In spite of so much Nazi-Fascist sentiment and activity, the intelligent responsible public of all walks of life are steadfastly pro-Ally and antitotalitarian.
Prominent Chileans, whose' opinions and knowledge have been respected for many years, Insist that 70 per cent. of the population, both native and foreign, would like to see the British win. Ten per cent. more actually believe in strict neutrality while the remaining 20 per cent. include not only Nazis and Fascists but Chileans, having studied in German schools and universities.
The representative press of Chile has been and still is anti-Nazi.
Chilean Nazis have a well considered programme. It is elastic in form, and its promulgation awaits developments in Europe during the next few weeks. Three separate courses of procedure have been mapped out, and the progress of Der Fuehrer's campaign, or the steps he will take against England, will determine which of the three is to be followed.
Roughly the programme IN as follows: First, if the onslaught upon the British Isles falls, if the Nazi military machine is repulsed, and does not succeed in establishing itself on British soil, there are to be no open or drastic moves in Chile for the moment. The members of the Fifth Column are to remain under cover working quietly and continuing to bore from within as they have been doing for some time.
Behind The Scenes
In the second place, if the campaign for England should prove to be a draw. and result in a stalemate, or a fifty-fifty chance of success, the organisation is to go into action, but behind the scenes and not openly. As one of my informants expressed it, " sabotage is to become the order of the day." This reign of sabotage is to have two purposes, one of which directly concerns the United States.
The first is to hamper Chilean exports
of food supplies, copper and other raw materials, which, except for those purchased by us, now go largely to the British Empire.
The other and perhaps the most important purpose is to draw United States' attention away from and curtail its support of England.
Finally, if Germany should succeed in invading and defeating England within a brief time, the Nazi course, according to this programme, is clear. They will attempt to take over the country by force if necessary, depending. of course, upon assurances of complete co-operation from the Fatherland.
Of Uruguay he writes:
After recalling the fearless attitude taken up by the Government in face of Nazi pressure in the matter of the Graf Spee incident, he goes on: So far, Uruguay, smallest of the South American republics, has been the only country on the continent to challenge the might of the Nazi juggernaut in its relentless progress across the world.
More recently a Congressional investigating committee dared to force the arrest of a dozen Nazi leaders and lay bare their plans not only for the overthrow of the government and institutions