FROM ALAN McELWA1N IN ROME IN a precedent-setting consistory this week, Pope Paul raised the College of Cardinals to a record total of 103 Princes of the Church. He created 27 new cardinals, among them Cardinal Heenan of Westminster, and Cardinal Conway of Armagh.
He eliminated the conferring of red hats in St. Peter's Basilica—they were delivered to the Cardinals by messenger—and concelebrated Mass with the new Cardinals on Monday in a much revised ceremony.
This was the Popes first consistory, and it presaged, as he has already announced, the naming of even more Cardinals after the fourth and final session, later this year, of the Vatican Council.
This week's Cardinals assumed their new status from the moment they received their Biglietti, or nomination notes, last Monday. But the climax came on Thursday. Then, in a brilliant public consistory in St. Peter's Basilica, the new Cardinals concelebrated Mass at the Papal altar with the Pope.
It was a moving ceremony, signifying not only the universality of the Church, but the "collegiality" of its bishops, a theme which has been so much before the Council and so warmly fostered by Pope Paul himself.
The crowds of prelates and diplomats from all parts of the world, relatives of the new cardinals, and the general public present in St. Peter's saw history made as old ceremonial tradition was replaced by new on the express orders of the practical-minded Holy Father.
It has, at public consistories in the past, always been the custom for the Pope to present the new cardinals with their red hats. This time, there were no red hats in St. Peter's: they were delivered, with 20th century matter of factness, direct to the cardinals' residences.
Instead, Pope Paul, interrupting the concelebration at the Lesson, handed the cardinals their red birettas and episcopal rings as each in turn came forward and made obeisance to him. He had a smile and a whispered word for all, at the same time he announced the name of the titular church in Rome assigned to each.
There was applause from the English section of the spectators as Cardinal I-Teenan went forward and, of course, the Irish, not to be outdone, gave Cardinal Conway a fine reception,
Applause, too, for Cardinal Owen McCann, of Cape Town, South Africa's first cardinal. For him, the week's celebrations had been not only the highlight of his ecclesiastical career, but a heart
warmly fostered by Pope Paul 80-year-old mother, Mrs. Susan McCann, was present, with her daughter, and the Cardinal's
brother, Tom, from Johannesburg.
One of the great moments of the St. Peter's ceremony came when Cardinal Josef Reran, released from 16 years' detention in Czechoslovakia only the week before, appeared. There was a tremendous stir as the crowds applauded and strained forward in their places to see him.
And as African Cardinal Paul Continued on Back Page, Col. 4