Berlin has youngest Cardinal
Continued from Page 1 recent conclave is shown by the second number, in brackets): Italians 29 (16); Latin America 11 (9); French 8 (6); Spanish 4 (3); U.S.A. 4 (2); Commonwealth 4 (4); 'German 3 (2); Portugal 2 (2); Eastern Rites 2 (2); Great Britain 1 (0); Mexico 1 (0); Ireland, Belgiwn, Hungary, China, Poland, Yugoslavia and India retain one cardinal .each.
The Italian representation has risen from one-third to two-fifths.
THE new appointments include ± five Italian-born nuncios and Apostolic Delegates serving abroad. Two of them, serving in Catholic countries, will receive their scarlet birettas from the chiefs of state of their. sees.
They are Mgr. Fietta, Apostolic Nuncio in Italy who will receive his from the Italian president, Signor Gronchi. and Mgr. Cento, Apostolic Nuncio in Portugal who will receive his biretta from the Portuguese president.
Archbishop Cicognani, Apostolic Delegate in the U.S.A. for the past 25 years. and Archbishop Giobbe, Papal Nuncio in Holland, will go to Rome. All four nuncios and delegates will eventually be replaced in their posts and return to Rome to join the Curia.
The average age of the new Cardinals is 67. The youngestin fact one of the youngest for many years-is Bishop Dopfner of Berlin, aged 45; the oldest is Mgr. Bracci, aged 79. The late Cardinal Griffin, Archbishop of Westminster received his Red Hat on his 47th birthday.
The Sacred College now includes two brothers-Cardinal Cicognani a member of she Curia since 1953, is now joined by his brother Archbishop Cicognani for the past 25 years Apostolic Delegate to the United States.
THE most striking feature of the a Holy Father's early nomination of 23 new cardinals is certainly the breach of the regulation created by the constitution Postattain vents which in 1586 fixed the number of the Sacred College a170.
Previous to that time the number of cardinals varied front 53 in the twelfth century to 65 under Leo X, though the Sacred College usuaLly contained far fewer numbers.
Notable, too, in the list of nominations is the fact that it contains five nuncios or apostolicdelegates. Though these diplomatic offices are usually held by Italian prelates, the fact that the Holy Father has nominated so many cardinals from posts in different parts of the world suggests his wish to govern the Church with the best possible advice about the state of the Church in other countries. In that sense, the choice has an important international flavour.
The strengthening of the Curia Roman, i.e. the organised bodies assisting the Pope in the government and administration of the Curia, is illustrated not only by the bringing to Rome of the nuncios but by the nomination of non-episcopal secretaries and deans of Congregations and Tribunals. Mgr. Tardini himself, whose appointment as Cardinal Secretary of State fills an office vacant for 14 years, is not a bishop, but only a Protonotary Apostolic, the highest rank of monsignori.
Some of the appointments, like those of the Archbishop of Westminster, the two American Secs and Vienna, continue the tradition that certain important Sees are ruled by Cardinal-Archbishops. Archbishop Godfrey is the seventh Archbishop of Westminster and the seventh Cardinal of Westminster. By a coincidence he was also the seventh Archbishop of Liverpool.
But the nominations of the Archbishop of Guadalajara in Mexico and Montevideo in Uruguay would seem to be designed to continue the policy of strengthen ing thc Catholicism of Central am South America. There are noss seven cardinals in that part of the world. In addition to the new nominations, they arc the cardinals of the Argentine, Brazil Chile. Colombia, Cuba and Ecuador.
These cardinals, together with 50 Latin American bishops, are now in Rome for the third conferents of CELA M (Latin-American Epis copal Conference)
A generally unexpected nomina lion is that of Mgr. DOpfner. Bishop of Berlin, who at 45 is the youngest cardinal. The nomination is undoubtedly intended to give the Pope's most solemn encouragement to German Catholics, not only in free Berlin, but behind the Iron Curtain.
The Diocese of Berlin covers not only the City (with two million total population in the Western sector and one million in the Eastern) but also surrounding territory, all of it in Sovietdominated areas.
To the West, the Bishop exercises jurisdiction to a point near Magdeburg, and to the East as far as the Polish border. About 10 per cent of the population of 6,200,000 is Catholic.
As revealed at this year's meeting of Bishops in Berlin, the Bishop of the Diocese has difficulty in visiting his missions in Soviet-dominated territory, and that goes for East Berlin too. where his cathedral is situated. He has to ask leave every time, and obstacles are placed by the Communist authorities.
IT was not easy to picture a suc cessor in Vienna to Cardinal Innitzer. He had a simple humility which could overcome even the most serious political situations. Archbishop Konig, now Cardinal, has, however, in a different way qualities which have and will place hint high in the affection of his flock.
On his last visit to England for the opening of Southwark Cathedral, it did not appear out of place to find him meeting a number of Catholic actionists in basement rooms opposite Westminster Cathedral, and then to take him in a modest saloon car along to the Challoner Club to discuss delevopmerits in Austrian church affairs.
Whether the discussion was in English, which thc Cardinal speaks fluently, or in German, the discussion was free and easy.
The average age of the newly appointed cardinals is fairly high. but the Holy Father may well feel the special value of the wisdom and experience ot age in the councils of the Church.
FOLLOWING is a complete list 01 the newly-appointed Cardinals: Mgr, BRACCL Secretary of the Sacred Congregation of Sacraments, aged 79.
Mgr. CARLO CHIARLO, Archbishop of Amida, Papal Nuncio at the disposition of the Secretariat of State, aged 77.
Msg. FERNANIDO LENTO, Archbishop of Selucia Pieria, Papal Nuncio in Portugal. aged 75.
Mgr. GIUSEPPE FIETTA, Archbishop of Sardica, Papal Nuncio to Italy, aged 75.
Mgr. ALBERTO DI JORIO, Secretary of the Conclave to whom the Holy Father awarded his own icarlet cap on his election to the aontificate, was born in Rome 74 years ago. Auditor General of the Apostolic Chamber.
Mgr. PAUL MARIE RICHkUD, Archbishop of Bordeaux. tged 71.
Mgr. JOHN O'HARA, Archoishop of Philadelphia, aged 70.
Mgr. DOMENICO TARDINI, ippointed Papal Secretary of State -in Monday and included in the .:st a new Cardinals announced on the same day. Born in Rome /0 years ago and ordained there in 1912, Archbishop Tardini is wellknown for his many diplomatic achievements and has been a Protonotary Apostolic since 1937. He refused the Red Hat in the consistory of 1953 but was named Pro-Secretary of State for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. He spends his spare time caring for orphan children in a home which he founded.