Thirty-nine Cardinals attend ceremony of the Red Hat
Continued from page 1 science does not permit us to acknowledge and approve the grounds of the accusations against him, which, as you know, went so far as to condemn the Archbishop of Zagreb to a very heavy penalty. . . .
"The Cardinalate is a purely ecclesiastical dignity, even though Governments and peoples greatly rejoice when one of their citizens is raised to the honours of your College."
The Pope told the Cardinals that Archbishop Wyszynski a few days before "informed us in a brief message that be could not reach this beloved city, as he so ardently wished to do.
"The reasons for his failure to come are so far unknown to us.
"It is very certain, however-and we desire that it be known to allthat we, when we determined to raise him to the dignity of the Roman Purple, not only intended to reward fittingly this Archbishop, so well deserving of the Church, but we intended besides to give a high testimony of our vivid paternal affection for the most noble Polish nation, which has written chapters of shining glory in the pages of Christian history, even in difficult and stormy times."
The Holy Father said that in choosing "the new Cardinals we were animated by the intention that as far as possible your Sacred College should be, as it were, the living image of the entire Church, of which it is the august Senate.
"For the Catholic Church-of which this Apostolic See has, by design of Divine Providence, been constituted the centre-is foreign to no nation and no people, but belongs to all, cherishes all with the same love and the same solicitude."
JLIST 90 minutes before the Holy Father, attended by the prelates and laymen of the Papal Court, was due to enter the Consistorial Hall, a Comet jet airliner flew into Rome's Crampino airport from Beirut. In it was Cardinal Spellman, who had flown from Korea by way of Japan,
the Philippine Islands, India and the Middle East.
He was, hawever, one of the first to arave at the Vatican, There he joined a number of other Cardinals who received the Red Hat with him just on seven years ago -Cardinal Griffin, whom another Comet had brought earlier from London in about two hours, Cardinal McGuigan from Toronto, Cardinal Frings from Cologne, Cardinal Gerlier from Lyons.
Twenty-two Cardinals-I0 of them resident in Rome-sitting in the red damask-covered benches before the throne, listened to the Pope's allocution and heard him name the new members of the Sacred College.
Half an hour passed, and then the Holy Father, ringing a bell, summoned the Pontifical Master of Ceremonies. The doors of the Consistorial Hall were unlocked. Three groups of prelates came forward and received the documents announcing the nominations.
As they left, Archbishops and Bishops were summoned to join the Pope and the Cardinals at a semipublic Consistory, for the nomination of new members of the episcopate.
The prelates, bearing the biglietti of nomination and the formal decrees of the Apostolic Chancellery, called at nine colleges, a church and Curial offices.
-Cardinal Ottaviani received them at the Palace of the Holy Office and Cardinal Valeri at the Palace of the Sacred Congregation of the Oriental Rites. Three were together at the Latin American College, Cardinal da Silva, Cardinal dc la Torre and Cardinal Luque.
Cardinal Feltin of Paris and Cardinal Grente of I.e Mans were together at the Church of St. Louis of the French.
India's first member of the Sacred College, Cardinal Gracias, was with Cardinal Costantini at the Palace of the Sacred Congregation of the Propagation of the Faith. Another of the Commonwealth Cardinals, Mont real's Archbishop, Cardinal Leger, was at the Canadian College.
Cardinal McIntyre from Los Angeles and Cardinal Wendel of Munich received them at the North American College.
Three of the new Italian "creations," Cardinals Mimmi of Naples, Cardinal Sid of Genoa and Cardinal Lercaro of Bologna were at the Palace of the Apostolic Chancellery.
Last to be reached by the prelates was Cardinal D'Alton. Archbishop of Armagh, at the Irish College.
Other Vatican prelates, as Papal ablegates, accompanied by Noble Guards, were meanwhile setting out for France, Spain and Portugal with the Consistory documents and carrying the red biretta to the Heads of the States to confer upon the Papal Nuncios and to the two new Spanish Cardinals.
One of the last to see the new Cardinals in Rome after their nomination was the Holy Father himself. Thousands of people had visited them to offer their congratulations, but the Pope did not see them until Wednesday evening, when, in their scarlet robes and each with a master of ceremonies and other attendants, they went to the Vatican to receive . from His Holiness their red birettas.
This was a more simple occasion than formerly : it was held in the small Throne Room and no visitors had been invited.
30,000 GO TO• ST. PETER'S
THEN.yesterday, came the Public Consistory. Applications for admission to the basilica had come from almost every free country in the world and it was obvious long beforehand that 30,000 of MOM people would he there to greet the Holy Father as he entered, again with the Papal Court, and preceded by the 22 Cardinals who had been at the Secret Consistory.
The President of Italy and the Prime Minister, Signor De Gasperi, with the entire Diplomatic Corps accredited to the Holy See and other distinguished visitors, had special places in the high tribunes overlooking the Papal throne by the Altar of the Chair.
The basilica had been decorated as for a beatification e rich tapestries hung from the high windows and arches, and thousands of electric lights were there to be switched on as His Holiness, heralded by the silver trumpets, entered on the sedia gestatoria.
Seated in the raised, brilliantly lighted throne, the Pope first received the "obedience" of the 22, each Cardinal, having come from the U-shaped tribunes before the throne, kneeling to kiss the Pontiff's foot and hand.
A group of the Cardinals left to go to the Chapel of the Most Holy Trinity to bring the new Cardinals, who had assembled there to take the oath of fidelity.
And now a layman came upon the scene as the central figure before the Holy Father-a Consistorial lawyer, Camillo Forsanego, to plead a beatification cause. His "client" was Giuseppe Toniolo, President of Catholic Action, who died in 1918.
When he had made the plea, all the Cardinals came from the chapel and the new Cardinals went to the Papal throne to make their obedience.
One by one they ascended the steps again and knelt. Two prelates raised over their head the Red Hat, the Pope placed his hand upon it, and it was lowered. A few words by His Holiness and the new Cardinal rose, bowed, and descended to the tribunes.
Seventeen times the great congregation watched this brief but historic ceremony. Then, with the Papal blessing and the singing of the Fe Dean) by the whole congregation, the Consistory was over.
PRAYER FOR CARDINALS
THE Holy Father returned to the Vatican, but all the Cardinals remained for the deeply moviog ceremony of the prostration. Before the altar the new Cardinals first knelt and then prostrated themselves on the carpeted floor, the long train of their cappa magna extended behind them and their heads covered by their hoods, while the Dean of the Sacred College, Cardinal Tisserant, prayed God to "have mercy on Thy servants and guide them in the way that leads to eternal salvation."
All the Cardinals then exchanged the kiss of peace and went in procession to the Vatican-for the final Consistory.
Here the Holy Father presented the new Cardinals with their rings and appointed them to their titular churches.
In the afternoon the Papal Master of the Robes went to the palaces and the colleges and presented to each new Cardinal the Red Hat.
Turned back over the Atlantic
The two aeroplanes carrying Cardinal McIntyre, Archbishop of Los Angeles, and his party of 61 to Ireland and Rome from New York had to turn back when they were about half-way to Ireland because of bad weather.
The planes landed at Gander. Newfoundland, refuelled, and then on Friday flew direct to Paris, whence they went on to Rome.
The Cardinal sent a message of regret to Shannon Airport, where many people had been waiting to greet him.
New Cardinals broadcast
Most of the new Cardinals from outside Italy made recordings at Vatican Radio earlier this week to be broadcast to their own countries when they had been nominated. Some of them also recorded messages to be broadcast to Catholics behind the Iron Curtain.
The Holy Father has sent a gift of nearly £10,000 to help the most needy families of the victims of the Valparaiso explosion on New Year's Day, which killed 54 people.